The National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES), a unit of the U.S. Department of Education, collects, analyzes, and reports data and statistics related to education from pre-K through graduate school in the U.S. and internationally. Two annually-updated publications from NCES are good "gateways" to education-related statistics:
NCES also provides access to several major education surveys, including:
The U.S. Census Bureau collects data through the decennial census as well as with more targeted (and more frequent) surveys such as the American Community Survey (ACS) and the Current Population Survey (CPS). These include education topics.
The state departments of education also collect, analyze, and report on educational data. You may need to navigate to the state of interest in order to get to state-level data. Note that some states use the term "Public Instruction" rather than "Education".
Here are links to the data and reporting sites for states in our region:
International agencies are also rich sources of data that goes beyond the U.S. system. These can be helpful when comparing U.S. educational outcomes and inputs with other countries.
Various non-governmental organizations collect and interpret educational data. Be careful about using data from these organizations, as they may have a bias about what data they consider valuable and how they interpret it.