Race, Racism, and Anti-Racism Resources: Black America

This guide brings together resources on racism and violence against Black people in the United States.

First-Year Readings

Article #1:

Kendi, Ibram X. "Robert Smith’s Real Gift to Morehouse." Atlantic: Web Edition Articles (USA), May 27, 2019. 
(link to article)

Local Resources:

  • Delaney, Ted. "Aspects of Black Religious and Educational Development in Lexington, Virginia, 1940-1928." Rockbridge Historical Society Proceedings X (1980-1989), pp.139-151. (link to article)
  • Perry, Lisa. "Soldier, Preacher, Educator: meet John Chavis, the First College-Educated African American." The News-Gazette, March 6, 2019. p.1 and 8. (link to article). 
  • Brochure for Chavis Hall. (link to brochure). 
  • Robson, David W. "'An Important Question Answered': William Graham's Defense of Slavery in Post-Revolutionary Virginia." The William and Mary Quarterly, Vol.37, No. 4 (Oct.1980), pp.644-52. (link to article). 
  • Washington's commitment to education: George Washington's letter to the Trustees of Liberty Hall Academy, providing them with the proceeds from his gift of James River Canal Stock. (link to letter). 
  • Strong, Robert. "A Founding Father on Parents Weekend." (link to article).

Article #2:

Kendi, Ibram X. "The Hopefulness and Hopelessness of 1619." Atlantic: Web Edition Articles (USA), August 20, 2019. (link to article).

Local Resources

  • "Interviews with African American students enrolled at W&L in 1997." (link to article). 
    • Description: A series of 40 interviews done by Jennifer Ashworth, the then administrative assistant in the History Department. #1 discusses reactions to the Confederate flags around town and on campus. #2 talks about micro-aggressions.
  • Local African American residents and their contributions to our community; a series of nine interviews done by the Historic Lexington Foundation. (link to webpage). 
  • Brundage, Fitzhugh. "Shifting Attitudes towards Slavery in Antebellum Rockbridge County." Proceedings of the Rockbridge Historical Society, pp. 333-344. (link to article). 
  • Coffey, David. "Reconstruction and Redemption in Lexington." Proceedings of the Rockbridge Historical Society, volume 12, 273-299. (link to article). 
  • Gaylord, Donald and Alison Bell. Returning to View: Using Archaeology and History to Restore Forgotten Stories about the Founders, Enslaved People, and Builders of the Academies that Became Washington and Lee University. 2018 essay. (link to essay).
  • Morel, Lucas. “America Wasn’t Founded on White Supremacy.” The American Mind, October 17, 2019. (link to essay).
    • Prof. Morel’s essay relates to an essay by Nikole Hannah-Jones, “Our Democracy’s Founding Ideals were False When They Were Written. Black Americans have Fought to Make Them True.” (link to essay).
  • Wilson, Eric. "Archer Alexander: The Face of Freedom, Re-visiting a Rockbridge Icon." July 2020. (link to article). 

Article #3:

Kendi, Ibram X. "It's Time for Police to Start Snitching." Atlantic: Web Edition Articles (USA), May 14, 2018.
(link to article).

Local Resources

  • McClure, John. "The Freemen's Bureau School in Lexington versus 'General Lee's Boys.'" In, Virginia's Civil War, edited by Peter Wallenstein and Betram Wyatt-Brown (University of Virginia Press, 2005). 189-200. (link to article).