Fall 2019

Avoiding Plagiarism

Plagiarism is described in the W&L 2019-20 Catalog, and cited by the Student Executive Committee, as "the use of another's words, figures, or ideas without proper ackowledgement."   The resources listed here should be considered reliable sources of advice about what constitutes plagiarism and how to avoid it.

Citation Styles

Unfortunately, there is no universally agreed-upon "style" for documenting the use of sources in research -- no single method for formatting footnotes, bibliographies, endnotes, in-text citations, etc.  Instead, there are more than a dozen, most of which are specialized for use in one or more subject areas.
The W&L University Library maintains a collection of resources on these styles (link below).  Many of these resources are online, but some of the most important volumes still are available only in printed form.

Annotations and Literature Reviews

What is involved in creating an annotated bibliography?   Here are some guides:  Purdue University  |  University of Wisconsin  |  Hunter College


A journal article's literature review discusses the existing research on aspects of the topic.  Some examples:


English Language Dictionaries and Usage

Go to this page to use

  • three of the most respected dictionaries of the English language available online;
  • major printed and online guides to usage and grammar.